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Virial theorem

Consider a quantum particle of mass \(m\) moving in a \(D\)-dimensional space under the action of a Hamiltonian \[H = T + V \,,\] where \[T = \frac{\boldsymbol{p} \cdot \boldsymbol{p}}{2 m} = \frac{p_1^2 + p_2^2 + \ldots + p_D^2}{2 m}\] is the kinetic energy, and \[V = V(\boldsymbol{x}) = V(x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_D)\] is the potential energy. Here, \(x_j\) and \(p_j\), with \(j = 1, 2, \ldots, D\), are Cartesian components of the particle's position and momentum vectors, respectively, satisfying the standard commutation relation: \[[x_j, p_k] = i \hbar \delta_{jk} \,.\] Suppose further that the potential \(V\) is confining, and that the particle is in a bound state \(| \psi \rangle\) of energy \(E\), i.e. \[H | \psi \rangle = E | \psi \rangle \,.\] The virial theorem states that the expectation value of the kinetic energy is given by \[\boxed{ \langle T \rangle = \tfrac{1}{2} \langle \boldsymbol{x} \cdot \boldsymbol{\nabla} V \rangle }\] Here, \[\langle \cdot \rangle \equi

Lower bound on survival probability

Let \(| \psi(t) \rangle\) be the time-dependent state of a quantum system evolving under the action of a time-independent Hamiltonian \(H\), i.e. \[i \hbar \frac{d | \psi(t) \rangle}{d t} = H | \psi(t) \rangle \,.\] Suppose that initially, at \(t=0\), the system is in some state \(| \psi(0) \rangle = | \psi_0 \rangle\). The autocorrelation function \[P(t) = \big| \langle \psi(t) | \psi_0 \rangle \big|^2\] quantifies the survival probability: \(P(t)\) is the probability that the system would be found in its original state after time \(t\). The survival probability equals unity at \(t=0\) and, generally, decays as \(t\) increases. How fast can \(P(t)\) decay? In particular, can the decay be exponential, i.e. \[P(t) \stackrel{?}{=} e^{-\gamma t}\] with some decay rate \(\gamma>0\) on a time interval \(0 \le t \le T\)? (The assumption of exponential decay is commonplace in back-of-the-envelope arguments. For instance, the number of atoms in a sample undergoing radioactive d

No-cloning theorem

Consider two quantum systems of the same nature. For concreteness, let us take them to be two hydrogen atoms. Suppose that the first H-atom is in an arbitrary unknown state \(| \alpha \rangle\), while the second H-atom is in the ground state \(| 0 \rangle\). Is it possible to construct a perfect cloning machine operating as follows: The machine changes the state of the second H-atom from \(| 0 \rangle\) to \(| \alpha \rangle\) without altering (or destroying ) the state of the first H-atom? More specifically, the machine takes the initial state of the composite system, \[| \alpha 0 \rangle = | \alpha \rangle \otimes | 0 \rangle \qquad \text{(initial state)}\] where \(\otimes\) denotes the tensor product, and transforms it into \[| \alpha \alpha \rangle = | \alpha \rangle \otimes | \alpha \rangle \qquad \text{(final state)}\] module perhaps some physically irrelevant global phase. The no-cloning theorem states that constructing such a machine is impossible. Proof 1 (usin